by Sifu Renka
Zheng-Yi Wang filming “sandstorms hit Beijing”
The reason why the birth of photography, that is, for the record. It is displayed after the birth of the great vitality, but also precisely because of its record. This is the other technology or art can not match or replace. Thus, broadly speaking, photography is the record.
With the development of photography, people continue to increase in the photography art elements, began to produce art photography. It is the difference between photography and record the number and level of art, no absolute limits. For example: we go taking pictures for identity cards or Liugejinian, general studio photographs, data or record up to a bit value.However, Mr. Zheng Jingkang to shoot portraits, Mr. Qi, 50 years later, still the world’s 20 best works of one of the portraits. The difference completely
White agate stone pictograph of the original “fat feet Niu Yang Yuhuan,” Zheng-Yi Wang Photo
Lies in the level of artistic quality.
Painting pictures of photography for its aesthetic design language and a beautiful portrait photography content has been an important means of expression. Since the invention of photography has, say, Painting Photography has been through it, and the history of photography from several milestone. After the second half of the nineteenth century, the British photographer Lei Landa had been predicted to take out a “new era of photography,” the two works —–” way of life “in photography was also ignored, its advised of painting oil painting style theme and composition, by Queen Victoria’s high rating. Can be said that Lei Landa on promoting the photographic arts have been recognized as a contributed. Since then, the pictorial art of photography has gradually become an important photographic genre.
Holography is a kind of records are photo objects reflected wave amplitude and phase, and all other information on the new photography. Photography is a record of ordinary objects
Agate carving colorful plants “sub Dragon”
Plane intensity distribution, it can not record objects in the reflected light of the phase information, and thus lost the three-dimensional. Holography using laser as light source and light source into two beams of light emitted, a bunch of direct fired sensitive film, and the other a bunch of photo objects of reflection by being fired after the sensitive film. Two beams of light sensitive film, superposed interference, photographic film sensitive points on the extent of not only with the intensity of the light beam with the two different phase relations. Therefore, holography not only records the object of reflection intensity, phase information is also recorded.Directly to the human eye to see this sensitive film, only to see the same interference fringes as fingerprints, but if it is irradiated with a laser to the human eye can see through the original film was shot identical three-dimensional objects, like . A holographic image Even if just one small part, can still reproduce all the features. Holography can be used in industrial non-destructive testing, ultrasonic holography, holographic microscopy, holographic memory, holographic film and television, and many other aspects.
1. Painting photography doctrine
Painting doctrine early 20th century photography is popular in the field of photography an art school, it produces in the mid-nineteenth century England.
The school photographer in the creative pursuit of painting effects, or “poetic” in the state. It has gone through the following three stages: imitation painting stage; advocate song Ya stage; Painting stage.
Painting doctrine photographer says, “should result in photography and photography of Ti Cian Raphael.”
Painting doctrine has undergone a long development of photography during the first painting photography doctrine Greek cuisine is a British painter Road (1802-1870), who specializes in portrait photography, works well-structured, elegant. From 1851 to 1853, is the growth period of painting photography doctrine. In 1869, the British photographer, HP Robinson (1830-1901) published a photograph of the picturesque effect of the book, he proposed: “Photographers must have a rich emotional and in-depth understanding of art, square enough to become a good photographer. No doubt , photography continued improvement and continuous innovation which revealed a higher goal, enough to make photography more freely; but improved technology is not equivalent to artistic progress. because the photo itself is exquisite in any case complete, it is only a lead to a higher goal. “lays a theoretical foundation for the school.
1857, OG Leyland (1813-1875) created a spell from the 30 films which formed up, with Renaissance-style works: Two ways of life, marking the painting art photography mature doctrine.
Works of this period, most of its rich religious theme, with a certain degree of regulatory metaphorical. Shooting, lay the draft notice, and then use models, props, to organize scenes and processed through the darkroom. Pursuit of photo images of the paintings.
Subsequently, the painting has expanded the content of Marxist photography, but still uphold the classical style, shape and composition remain the law of academic, which make the savings, Journal of the table, elegant.
Photo by photographer Zheng Jingkang “Qi”
When the school to the Painting stage of development, the pursuit of works of emotion, mood and form of the United States, remains its characteristics.
Since painting artistic accomplishments of Marxism photographer stressed: “If you want to make the photo standing in art, photography must first cultivate the ability and aesthetic education from the real art training.” Therefore, its historical contribution was to photograph from the early mechanical depict objects lead to the field of plastic arts, to promote the development of the art of photography.
As the doctrine of creation drawing from real life mostly, coupled with the increasing improvement of photographic equipment, interesting people as early as the continuous development of the United States for “naturalism” by the impact. Despite this, in today’s photographic art galleries, there are still seats it.
The school’s principal photographer, and works include: Pleasant on (? -1 896) of the Baron of the feast, Robinson Crusoe, pagoda scene; Robinlynn of the time when the day’s work finished, the fall, the two little girls, dying , holding a bottle of poison Juliet, dawn and sunset; Leyland glow of the first baptism by St. John, 伊菲吉尼亚, Dieter and 荷罗佛尼斯 excellent; Ms. Jin Malun (1815-1897) Tom 姆士卡莱尔and Trinidad (1820-1910) of the dying of the clamor and Russia and so on.
2. Impressionist photography
In 1899, the British organized a French impressionist painting of the first exhibition. Painting Faction photographers under the influence of Robinson in his proposed “soft tone sharp photography photography more beautiful than the” aesthetic standards, promote a “soft tone” photography. Impressionist painting of the school is in the field of photographic art to reflect.
Start, they use soft focus lens for filming, textured finishing, the pursuit of a vague hazy effects of artistic expression. With the “wash silver bromide phase” and in the paint mixed with dichromate in the emergence of plastic washing photo paper method, Impressionist works from the imaging camera to the darkroom to control the development process. Them “to make work seem like photographs,” and that “if there is no painting, there is no real photography.”
Under the guidance of this theory, impressionist photographers also use brush, pencil, rubber processing in the photo on the screen, deliberately changed its original brightness change, the pursuit of “painting” effect, such as Lakeluoya created in 1900 The “sweep the park” and, as is a painting on canvas charcoal. Impressionist photographers make
their own photographic art works completely lost its own characteristics, so some people took it as “imitation Painting.”Doctrine photography can say it is a branch of painting.
This genre of art is characterized by gloomy tone, film grain rough, full of decorative, but lack the sense of space. The well-known photographer with Duma Xi (? -1937), Puyo (1857-1933), Qiu Yan (1866-1944), Vacek (1848-1903), Hoffmeister Brothers (1868-1943; 1871-1937), Duerkefu (1848-1918), Aifuerte (1874-1948), Mizun time (1870-1943), Xin swallow (1863-1908), Church Lane (1861-1947), etc. .
3. Realistic photography
Realistic photography is a long history of photographic genre, stretches so far, still photography of the basic and primary schools. It is the creation methods of realism in the field of photographic art to reflect.
The genre of photographic artists in the creation abide by the photography of the documentary feature, in their view, photography should have “equal and nature itself, with” the faithful of the screen in every detail, and only with the “math-like precision,” work to play his kind of art forms do not have the appeal and persuasive. A · Stiglitz said: “Only of the faithful, is our mission.” On the other hand, they were indifferent to anti-object as a mirror, purely objectively reflect the object, claiming that creation should have a choice, on the reflect the things artists should have their own aesthetic judgments. Well-known realist photographer Lewis said Hein on this saying: “I want to expose things that should be added to correct; the same time, to reflect the things that should be commended.” See that they are advocating art should “reflect the life” view. They dare to face reality, the subject, mostly taken in the social life. The simple, artistic style, but with a strong witness to the power of and tips.
The earliest realistic photographic hobby when pushed British photographer 菲利普德拉 Mott in 1853 shooting a documentary that collodion. Later, it is Luosi Fen ton of field photography, and the late sixties, William Jackson, Yellowstone wonders. After 1870, realistic photography matures, start turning the lens of social, turning life. If the photographer was shot 巴纳多博士 on the plight of street children, and shocked people.
As the loving shots of the enormous and extraordinary understanding of the role of moving gradually in the field of information to take their position. Ya-nineties American photographer on the New York slums Brisbane Valley life that works, that is, ground-breaking work in this area.
Subsequently, realistic photography talents, works both for its strong and deep nature of reality is known in the history of photography. Such as the UK Borland’s “pick up those coal”; U.S. R · Capa’s “pass it the first French woman to be shaved through the streets”; France Weisz of “girl” and so many others.
4. Naturalistic photography
In 1899, photographer Bidehengli Emerson in view of the weakness of painting in Writing, published an article entitled “naturalistic photography,” the paper, criticized the doctrine photography is fragmented painting photography, promotion photography back to nature to find inspiration. He believed that nature is the art of the start and end, only the closest to nature, resembles a natural art, is the highest art. He said no more precise an art than photography and detailed, faithfully reflects the natural, “from the emotionally and psychologically speaking, the effect of photography hobby is that photographic materials are recorded, without modification of the camera scene.” The send another master A · L · Patrick Chiu said more clearly: “Art should be left to artists to do, on our photography, and have nothing to rely on the art, should be engaged in the creative independence.”
Thus, this art advocate, is painting a reactionary doctrine, which helped to turn the photo from the shackles of academic freed on full role in promoting photography has its own characteristics.
Inspiration for this genre, mostly of natural scenery and social life.
As naturalistic photography in describing the reality of the surface to meet the realities and details of the “absolute” truth, while ignoring the real nature of mining and refining on the surface of objects, words, pay no attention to artistic creation and artistic image of the typical typification, Thus, it essentially is a vulgarization of realism. Sometimes lead to a distortion of reality.
This school has well-known photographer Apartment Office (1856-1930), Weier Qin Xun (1857-1921), Geer (? -1 906), scratch Jesus (1856 -?), Sutcliffe (1859-1940 ) and so on.
5. Purists photography
Purists are ripe in the early twentieth century photography a photography school of art. Its pioneering by the American photographer Stiglitz (1864-1946). They argued that photography should play their own characteristics and performance photography, painting of it from freed, with pure photography to pursue photography has a special aesthetic effect – a high degree of clarity, rich shadow tone levels, subtle lighting changes, pure tone black and white film, fine texture performance, precise image depicts. In short, the school photographer deliberately pursue the so-called “photographic quality”: precise, direct, subtle and natural way to behave to the subject of light, color, line, shape, pattern, quality aspects, and not with any other plastic arts medium.
Coban 1913 exhibition sent overlooking New York’s masterpiece is pure camp. New York photographer, a square from above, though without any processing, modification, but the new composition, unique style and refreshing, another example, Sandberg E Stein, K Cheng, with repeated exposure is approach, the independent works of space, time constraints, in a delicate screen depicts the poet emotional conversion, a combination of fine tone and composition changes, most rhythm.
From a certain point of view, simply send some of the ideas and creativity is the formalism and naturalism of the “bastard”, then the derivative into a “New Objectivity.” But the genre to some extent people have been promoted photography features and performance skills of exploration and research.
The genre is well-known photographer Strand (1890 -?) And F64 group photographer photographic organizations, such as Adams, Cunningham and other.
Purists later works are the lines, patterns and distorted image of the abstract aspects of development, the influential photographer is Yabo, Shiding Na, history, culture and Evans off so special.
6. New Objectivity photography
New Objectivity photography, also known as “disposable photography” and “new realism photography.” The twenties of this century the emergence of a photography school of art.
The schools of arts features to look for things in common, “the United States.” With a close-up, close-up and other techniques to bring to the subject from the whole “separation” came out, obviously reflected by the object of a detailed, precise and accurately describe its surface structure to achieve the matter are both trademarks eyes and ears of the visual effects. It does not take into account the nature of art is to suggest the nature of the object, which in his aesthetic theories are naturalistic areas. For example, the photographer Patrick Church in the 1923 shooting of an engine shaft is to use close-up way back, the performance of the rotary engine running state, because the screen to give away the other details so the audience a strong visual impression.
New Objectivism theory pioneered by Strand, his artistic features of Objectivism provides as follows: “New Objectivity but nature photography, and is also the product and the limits of photography.” He believes that photography ” strong performance of life, but also observe the right eye of things. For this reason, not based on a perfunctory process and method of operation, but must use pure photography 才行. “New Objectivity photography pioneer in the creation of the Arab-Israeli Jason and Steichen. The actual founder of the Church referred to above par.
Patrick Chiu against photography depends on the painting, he stressed the need to rely on photography art photography own characteristics, that the aesthetic value of photography features hidden in its own, only give full play to its own characteristics of photography to create the United States, he said: “The painting should be lightly by the artist to paint, and only according to the inherent characteristics, can be created independent of photography, nothing is borrowed from painting. ”
New Objectivity photographers of merit is to promote people’s own characteristics of photography and exploration of the aesthetic of photography from the virtual world in real life to pull back. However, too much emphasis on the detailed physical description of the surface structure, for later abstract photography provided a germination of the soil.
Before and after 1925, due to a large-caliber small camera, the performance of New Objectivity new development areas, resulting in a lot of portrait work and reflect the social life and natural beauty of the works.
New Objectivity photographers are famous Sand (1876-1964), Le Siji (1871-1956), black GE (1893-1955), Xier Xia (1881-1948) Hugh Limanhuopei (1878 -?), Ai Fute (1874-1948), Weiss swallow Adams (? -1 902) and so on.
7. Surrealistic photography
Surrealist photography for the Dada period of decline seen in the field of photography as a genre, the rise in the thirties of last century.
The school has a more stringent program of art and art theory. They believe that a realistic way to create real-world performance of classical artists have already completed the task of the modern artist’s mission is to tap new, not yet explored that part of the human “spirit world.”Thus, the human subconscious activities, occasionally inspired, psychological metamorphosis and became surreal fantasy photography artists made a special object.
Surrealist photography of the Dada photographer is also the same as using scissors, paste, darkroom techniques as their primary means of modeling, the scene will be piling up the screen works, put together, restructuring, performance and detail the specific any exaggeration, distortion, omission and symbolic practices combine to create a real and imagined, between the concrete and abstract, surreal “art realm.” Therefore, the effect is bizarre, absurd and mysterious.
The school’s founder is a British photographer, silk cloth Dayton and the United States to stay Quayle (1880-1945). Completed for
the British stage for the real photographer Mark Bin (1905 -?), In his own creation, the “super-reality” of virtual and real reality blend together to create an illusion it is really only the realm. For example, he created in 1946, “Mark Bin’s self-portrait” is a typical ultra-realistic work, it is the use of four exposure shot out of the way – one front, two side and one eye .
The school has engaged in a famous photographer, surrealist painter Pal Khan photo Collection; deformation of the body photographer Brent; portrait and publicity photography Carson, and Blumenthal, Lorraine, Haersiman, according to Lai, et al.
8. Abstract photography
Abstract photography after World War I there was a photography school of art.
Denial of the school’s photographer can look at the art of plastic art is to reflect the image of life, performance artists of the basic characteristics of aesthetic experience, claiming that photography should be “liberated from the photography inside.”
Initially, with no end magnify omitted to “Pi Sheti” The detail and rich texture fine tone, produced only the performance of the shape of the “light drawing.” Was developed to or use of light, or clip highlights, or half-way exposure, or shake the camera when shooting the image in the film to Pi Sheti the knot as vague, or multiple exposure to the heavy shadow, until images of the surface structure changes, changes the picture in the original object shape and spatial structure, trying to use the so-called form of fine tone (color) and the material of the “absolute abstract language”, so that was the object into a photo can tell why the objects of the lines, spots and shapes combination. To the performance of the bibles of the so-called artists to send the most real human beings, the most essential power of the subconscious world. In this work, photo objects are only created by the artist borrowed the performance of their own whim imagination and personality, “melody” of the notes.
Beginning of abstract photography are for the Taier Bo (1800-1877). Initially, the screen still works to maintain a certain degree of identifiable sex. To the 1917 photography Coban (1882 -?) And transparent glass with a wood shot, “Bordeaux Illustrated” had absolutely no identification of the. 1922, abstract painter 莫荷利纳基 Hungary (1895 -?) In man Ray (1890 -?) And others to build on them, and theoretically be established. Subsequently, the abstract painter Kandinsky, Keller introduced into the microscopic photography and X-ray photography, which greatly expanded the scope of the performance of abstract photography has enriched the language of photography, set up their own art system, and popular in Europe and the United States and other countries.
The school’s representative, unless already mentioned, there are Shige Te, Fenninger, On real rand, Folai Tai, Wen Gap Baptist, Georgia met with Pakistan, leaving Square, etc. Compiled and cloth.
9. Kansas’s school photo
Worthy of the camp after World War I the rise of photography, painting doctrine against a major photography photography school.
The school photographer for respect of their properties photography, emphasizing the real, natural, advocates shooting without mercy, non-interference in the object, to promote the natural state of crawling to the subject of the instant modality. French famous “worthy of” distributing photographer Hengli Ka Di Erbuliesong said: “For me, photography is a moment in a timely manner to the significance of an event and be able to accurately express this event accurate record of organizational form. “schools of art which features the objective, real, natural, friendly, casual, not something carved, vivid and full of life atmosphere.
“Worthy of the” camp of the photographer, the tendency of his aesthetic and creative thinking in terms of, yes the situation more complicated for, Sui Ran Du uphold their state’s performance in the world of human nature, majority have engaged in Yu news photography work, but some of Wei natural advocates, some of those for the realism.
Birth of the school’s work is photography in 1893 Alfred Stiglitz’s “Fifth Avenue of New York winter,” while those who actually completed is the German photographer Ailikesha Paramount Dr. . He used a small camera in a German-French Prime Minister at the end of the meeting taken at night, “political conference in Rome”, because of its vivid, true, simple, natural, and became the school a place in photographic history of the classics.
Aesthetics in photography, they think of “the basic characteristics of photography-based pictures, the house of the painter or etching can not imitate, it has its own integral I, has its own unique expression, and even with other media not demonstrated the characteristics of. “Secondly, the performance of objective things, they stressed the importance and originality, said: “(photographers use) their own point of view in the world, do not look at the world through the eyes of others, which is the distinction between mediocre or brilliant photos , the standard value or no value. ”
The famous photographer to send the United States according to the Thomas Road 韦尔麦阿沃; British 茜莉特摩戴尔; France 维克托哈夫 door; and 路易斯达尔 Wolf, Bidesita Kebierbu Lu Weiqi and so on.
10. “Dada” Photo
“Dada” is seen in Europe during World War I an art thought of. “Dada”, a French children’s language, “pony” or “hobby horse” are not consistent vocabulary. Dada artists for denial in the creation of rational and traditional culture, art and aesthetics declared missed in favor of “abandoned painting and all the aesthetic requirements”, advocating nothing, so the creative almost playful, so people to the school of art called “Dada faction. ”
In this art, under the influence of the field of photography has also had a “Dada.” Creation of a famous photographer Haersiman had a Mona Lisa, her pair of plump hand into the red with rage here is not only sudden, hairs clustered, but also filled with money. Be described as preposterous, neither fish nor fowl.
Dada artists, creative photography, mostly editing process using darkroom techniques to create a fantasy scene to express their own ideas. For example, the Leda and the Swan LM Naki, to a beautiful Greek myths, dealing with the grotesque into something obscure, elusive combination of images and lines. In the screen, visual images no longer exist in their own meaning, but only the component elements of certain ideas. Series also means to use scissors to flock to Niagara Falls, New York, created a shortage Kang Min Liao doomsday scene.
As the Dada art photography that people normally do not meet the aesthetic interest and aesthetic requirements, since 1924 there would gradually be more specific, comprehensive arts program tofu and Surrealist art school impact. But its impact may still occur after the glimpse of modern photography.
Dada famous photographer has 菲利普哈尔 Tasman, Morgan, 拉茨罗摩荷 Lina Ji and Lisiteji so.
11. Subjectivism photography
Photography is a subjective formed after the Second World War more than abstract photography “abstract” of the photographic art school, so they called the “post-war faction.”
It is the existence of Marxist Philosophy in the field of photographic art to reflect. Its founder is the German photographer 奥特斯坦内特. He believes that “photography is already a wide field of play to their capabilities, but also highly subjective and dynamic role. But has become a kind of mechanical realism.” Put forward a “subjective photography art ideas. Urged that the ultimate photography tips photography itself should be some hazy ideas and performance not explained the inner state and the subconscious activities.” Subjective photography is the personification of personalized photo . This is the school’s arts program. Subjective photographic artists to create extreme stress their personality, contempt for all rules have been artistic and aesthetic standards. The theorists
of the public school, “said photography is not just a subjective test of image art, but a free unlimited creative arts.” “We can use technical means to create any picture.”
Evolution of the Western world body photography art history, in Greece and the European Renaissance there have been a brilliant period of body art, was born the art of experiencing the reproduction of the initial shocking reality of artistic expression, the full exploration spirit and creativity of the photographer began to break through into the human body photography. 1857, Swedish photographer and subsequently remain in the United Kingdom Lei Dalan, shot a photographic history regarded as a classic in the making of the “two roads of life”, this piece of plot-rich, voluminous scenes images, using a large number of human works on the theme concept of good and punish the bad, the elderly white coming from the center, both sides of the two sets of figures reflect two different moral values, life vision and journey of life. On the left that diligent, friendly, progressive, right, said greed, pleasure and vice. Share more than 30 films which made editing collage to enlarge. It would have been a very imaginative and positive artistic creation, has also been appreciated at the time of Queen Victoria. Held in Manchester, important works of plastic arts exhibition for the emerging art of photography has won a high reputation. But it has also been a few attacks, it spent so many naked women, attitude rough Yin Mei, flow in the sex and so on. Can be seen, ancient and modern, body art no matter how positive or ideological significance of the art smart deal, will be subject to criticism and attack some people, I am afraid this has become a regular respond.
Western human photography trend is very clear. In the development of the traditional body of conventional photography, but also expressed a strong popular perception, the language of modern photography, creating a variety of genres, styles of work, resulting in a deformity, cutting, restructuring, mysterious, absurd, ugly mood. Jerry Yu Tasman as a symbol meaning of human photography, Luojiemaiding’s “arbitrary body,” Todd Park nest shape of the body of the original huge photography, 罗伯特亨内斯 Chin and Kai tezu * Ekehama reorganization of the human body such as the cutting photography, 李思丽克罗娜 Sri Lanka fantastic meaning of human photography and Nimda, Hong Ruo Road Nimiqieer means such a sexy human photography.
China Eastern culture and the human body photography
In summary, the same as the background of oriental culture, Japan and other countries the human body photography, the art also exists in two distinct tendencies – one is so strong and the oriental culture, the culture, creating a distinctive feature of the human body photographyOne is the cynical and Western culture, European culture, creating strong prominent human personality photography. Both have their own authors and readers, audience can go hand in hand, to develop their own.
Its characteristics are:
A picture of “concrete” and “abstract” no matter what form of two forms of self-expression of ideas is the ultimate goal. Screen all the photographers to express themselves only a “carrier” only.
2 features full use of the lens perspective, the Pi Sheti from reality “stripped” out, “moved” to the screen up, – the use of certain optical properties of the lens, the objective to transform objects, making ideas “materialized body”, thus creating a screen to form their own “world.” This world is often absurd, mysterious, or is 100 not comprehend the.
3 means the use of clear and strong close-up to strengthen and highlight the performance of a detailed form of objects.
4 used darkroom techniques to enrich the picture in its original shadow tone simplification, the natural, ordinary relationship into a strong visual relationship.
5 Using the exposure means (such as multiple exposure, continuous flash), so that Pi Sheti separated from the concept of time, and dynamically position the concept of time and space to be swapped.
In addition to its well-known photographer Ott, Sitanneite, there are Jieshimoer, Xiaofanoukan,
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