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Santa Cruz Museum of Natural History benefits from nonprofit’s conservation …

Santa Cruz Museum of Natural History benefits from nonprofit's conservation
SANTA CRUZ – The Museum of Natural History received a welcome boost this week, benefiting from nationwide nonprofit Heritage Preservation's Conservation Assessment Program. The program provides museums with funds for professional conservation …
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Museum could help us to heal
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Area museums seek variety to keep visitors coming
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Oyster Bay History Walk

charlotte museum of history
by SeeMidTN.com (aka Brent)

Origins and Development

The first settlers arrived in Oyster Bay in the 1650s.[citation needed] Over the ensuing 350 years several important events in the religious, military, and social history of Colonial America and the United States occurred there. A few of these events and the people associated with them are celebrated in the History Walk.

Seven of the sites included on the History Walk are also listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The tour was designed through the collaborative efforts of historian John Hammond,, Oyster Bay Historical Society Director Thomas A. Kuehhas, and sound recording artist Claire Bellerjeau.

An audio commentary was created to accompany the maps to enable interested walkers to understand the significance of each of the sites on the Walk. These tracks were originally released under the title Talk of the Town, but the name was changed to the Oyster Bay History Walk in 2008 at the time of certification by the American Heart Association as the first Start! Walking Path on Long Island.

Sites on the Walk

Details of the locations of the site on the walk are available on the linked map.

1. Introduction

The Walk starts at the Baykery Cafe with a general introduction to Oyster Bay and its history.

While many people know Oyster Bay as the home of Theodore Roosevelt there is, of course, much more to tell. Before the first arrivals of European colonials over 350 years ago the Matinecock Indians settled in the area at least a thousand years ago.[citation needed] Dutch and English merchants, fishermen, and shipbuilders later made this a lively center of maritime trade. One of George Washington most important spies Robert Townsend lived here. The notorious pirate Captain Kidd visited for a short time, as did Typhoid Mary.

2. Fleet’s Hall

Oyster Bay ca. 1890. Snouder’s Drug Store in left foreground, Moore’s Building in right background, and Fleet’s Hall to its right in foreground.

Main article: Fleet’s Hall

Fleet’s Hall is a building that once stood in Oyster Bay, New York. The building served as an important civic and social meeting place during the time that Theodore Roosevelt was a resident of Oyster Bay and served as Governor of New York State and later President of the United States. The building was used for events such as public meetings, concerts, receptions, dances, and dinners. It was also the site of the first moving picture screening in Oyster Bay.

3. Moore’s Building

Moore’s Building

Main article: Moore’s Building

Following a fire James Moore built a new grocery store in 1901 incorporating portions of a brick faade first built in 1891. As well as the large ground floor he included two high-ceilinged upper floors for public meetings. It was in these upper floors that President Roosevelt located his Summer Executive Offices. Secretary William Loeb, Jr. and his staff conducted any business of the president here that did not require his personal attention. Direct “hotlines” connected to Sagamore Hill and the White House. In 1903 the first “round the world” cable was transmitted from this building. Moore’s Building is listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places (NRHP).

4. Oyster Bay Bank Building

Oyster Bay Bank Building

Main article: Oyster Bay Bank Building

This building was constructed in 1891 and served as the first bank in the town, it originally consisted of 3 stories as well as a basement. The directors of the Oyster Bay Bank leased the third floor to the Masons of Matinecock Lodge #806, the second floor to various doctors and lawyers, part of the basement to a pool hall and tobacco shop, and used the first floor for the bank.

When Roosevelt was Governor of New York in 1900 he rented several rooms on the second floor. In 1901 he became a member of the Matinecock Lodge, and attended meetings on the third floor.

Originally the building was set back from the sidewalk about ten feet with a flight of wide stops leading up to the entrance. However, in 1927 the building was lowered and brought forward to the street. As a result customers can enter the main floor directly from street level. Following this a 3 story extension was added to the back of the building. Recently, the building has undergone extensive renovation, both inside and out.

5. Derby-Hall Bandstand

Derby-Hall Bandstand

Main article: Derby-Hall Bandstand

The bandstand was once used by Roosevelt and others to give speeches. The original bandstand was removed in the 1930s and in 1981 a replica took its place. It is once again used for public speakers. The original intention was to dedicate the replica to Roosevelt’s daughter Ethel Roosevelt Derby. However, her godson Leonard Wood Hall, a New York Congressman and Oyster Bay native, died shortly before completion. As he had been the principal organizer of the rebuilding project it was dedicated to him as well as Ethel.

There are three cannon around the bandstand.

The one facing the Town Hall is a Civil War era Dahlgren gun, named for its inventor Rear Admiral John A. Dahlgren. At the base of this cannon is a tablet cast from metal recovered from the wreck of the USS Maine. The explosion that caused this wreckage contributed to the decision to begin the Spanish-American War of 1898 (in which Roosevelt eagerly participated and gained fame).

The cannon at the foot of the stairs is a circa 1861 Civil War trophy gun from the USS R. R. Cuyler. The R. R. Cuyler was a 1202 ton wooden steamship chartered by the Union Navy to enforce a blockade of Florida west coast. It is a 30 pound Parrott rifle and weighs 3,510 lbs. It was presented to Oyster Bay by the Navy and unveiled by President Roosevelt in 1903.

6. U.S. Post Office

Post office

Main article: U.S. Post Office (Oyster Bay, New York)

While there have been at least four site for the Oyster Bay Post Office, the current building was the first to be architecturally designed. New York architect William Bottomley designed this building to be a mirror image of the Town Hall building on the opposite side of the street. Building was completed in 1936. Several artists were then commissioned to decorate the interior. The artists included Ernest Peixotto, who with his assistant contributed several murals representing Oyster Bay’s history, and Leo Lentelli, an Italian sculptor, who created terracotta panels above the interior doorways, a terracotta bust of Theodore Roosevelt, and a stone flagpole base on the grounds outside the Post Office. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

7. Long Island Rail Road Station

Oyster Bay LIRR station

Main article: Oyster Bay (LIRR station)

The Oyster Bay Railroad Station is the terminus of this branch of the Long Island Railroad. The first station was built in 1889 and then expanded in 1901 at the time of Roosevelt’s election as President to accommodate the large increase in guests to the hamlet. A new station was built nearby in the late twentieth century to accommodate double-decker trains. The original building is currently being transformed into the Oyster Bay Railroad Museum. This building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

8. Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Park

Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Park

Main article: Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Park

The land Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Park rests on was originally a salt marsh used for raising cattle. Theodore Roosevelt once said of the area of the future park, wish that we citizens of Oyster Bay could make here a breathing place for all people of this neighborhood, especially the less fortunate ones. Only a few months after his death in 1919, the idea of making a park was agreed upon. Over the next six years land was acquired and work to build a park begun. A dedication ceremony was held in May 1928, attended by 5,000 people with a parade and a flyover by planes.

9. Oyster Bay Long Island Rail Road Turntable

Turntable, beyond chain-link fence

Main article: Oyster Bay Long Island Rail Road Turntable

Oyster Bay is one of the few remaining stations with an original turntable. It was built in 1902 to replace a smaller one that had been moved to Oyster Bay from Locust Valley at the time of the extending the line. The Turntable is listed by the National Register of Historic Places.

10. Waterfront Center

Main article: WaterFront Center

The area of the shore used by the WaterFront Center used to be the site of Jakobson Shipyard. During World War II minesweepers, tugboats, and mini-submarines were produced for the US Navy. Today educational and recreational facilities occupy the site.

A major feature of the educational facilities is the U.S. National Historic Landmark Christeen, which is moored at the WaterFront Center. She is the oldest oyster sloop in the United States having been laid down in 1883. After 30 years of harvesting oysters she was used as a cargo vessel and then a pleasure vessel. In 1989 she was abandoned. Then in 1991 she was bought by a group of Oyster Bay enthusiasts and restored.

Oyster Bay produces up to 90% of the oysters and 40% of the hard clams harvested in New York State[citation needed]. The Christeen serves as a floating classroom to educate students of all ages about the operation of historic vessels and protection of the marine environment of Oyster Bay and Long Island Sound.

11. Captain Kidd in Oyster Bay

Main article: William Kidd

Although Richard Coote, the Earl of Bellomont, had been instrumental in securing Kidd’s commission as a privateer he later turned against Kidd and other pirates, writing that the inhabitants of Long Island were “a lawless and unruly people” protecting priates who had “settled among them.”

In an attempt to avoid his mutinous crew, who had gathered in New York, Kidd sailed 120 miles around the eastern tip of Long Island, and then doubled back 90 miles along the Sound to Oyster Bay. He felt this was a safer passage than the high-trafficked narrows between Staten Island and Brooklyn.

Kidd arrived in Oyster Bay on June 9, 1699, and anchored offshore. Justice White and Doctor Cooper helped to transmit a message to Kidd’s wife in New York, without exposing Kidd and his location. This secrecy was in vain, however, for his location in Oyster Bay was revealed, and just over a month later he was imprisoned in Boston before being shipped back to England for trial.

12. Wightman Memorial Baptist Church

Wrightman Memorial Baptist Church

Main article: Wightman Memorial Baptist Church

The first Baptist congregation started meeting in Oyster Bay in 1700 and it is the oldest Baptist congregation in the State of New York. The first minister, Robert Feeks was appointed in 1724 gaining him the distinction of being the first ordained minister in Oyster Bay of any denomination.

The original building was a plain unpainted wooden frame structure with flat planked pews and a small pulpit. During the Revolutionary War it was reportedly used to quarter occupying British troops, as were many other churches in the village. The congregation grew steadily and in 1806 a larger church was built on this site.

In 1882 this second building was moved back on the site and rotated 90 degrees to make room for the new church. In 1908, after several years of fundraising the church that is on the site today was completed. The 1806 building was then used as a Baptist church school.

Since the early 1980 the North Shore Assembly of God has made both the buildings their home, and have preserved the interior with all of its original details including carved pews and other woodwork, ornate pressed tin ceilings and walls, a built-in pipe organ, and the original stained glass windows.

13. Octagon Hotel

Octagon Hotel, c. 1910

Main article: Octagon Hotel

Luther Jackson built the Nassau House in 1851 to be a political and social meeting space. It was later called the Acker Nassau House. In 1884 the hotel was used for the coroner inquest into the murder of three women of the area, Lydia and Annie Maybee of Wolver Hollow and Charlotte Aurelia Townsend of Oyster Bay.

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In 1887 Phillip and Mary Lavelle bought the business and renamed it the Octagon Hotel. When Phillip died Mary took over the operations and made many modern improvements which brought patrons from miles around. In 1889 she installed a central heating system which supplied year-round comfort to the guests of the hotel and in 1890 she built a generating plant which provided Oyster Bay first electrical lighting. Finding the new phone service offered by the Queens County Telephone and Telegraph Company unsatisfactory, she had her own direct phone line to New York City installed.

Roosevelt’s secretary maintained a one-room office believed to have been on the second floor in the Octagon Hotel during 1899. Roosevelt was elected governor in late 1898 and began serving his term in January 1899. The one-room office soon proved to be too small and the staff moved to larger quarters in the nearby Oyster Bay Bank Building.

Mary Lavelle had brought the Octagon Hotel into the 20th century, but a new owner, Charles Davenport, saw his customer base decline as newer hotels in the village competed for clientele. Finally, after ten years, he sold the building to Edward Fisher, who turned it into Oyster Bay first Ford automobile dealership. It has been used for various automotive businesses ever since.

It is the only known octagonal building in this part of Long Island and is perhaps the only octagon-shaped hotel in the United States.

A proposal has emerged to restore the building to its original condition. This is presently being reviewed by the Town of Oyster Bay. Community groups have expressed their strong interest to see this building tied to the heritage of Theodore Roosevelt to be restored in a sensitive and thoughtful manner.

14. The Printery

The Printery

Main article: Oyster Bay Guardian

The Oyster Bay Guardian, a weekly newspaper, was founded by Nelson Disbrow in 1899 and over the following six years it was produced from various rented premises. In 1905 the actions of a rival newspaperman caused Disbrow to be unable to continue to rent any property in Oyster Bay. In response Disbrow bought his own property on West Main Street and in 1906 built The Printery, a brown shingled building that still stands today. From this building the Guardian was produced right through to 1967 when the Disbrow family sold it to Edwina Snow. The Printery has remained in use as a print shop.

The Guardian continues to be published to this albeit from different premises.

15. Fort Hill and the Townsend Cemetery

Main article: Townsend Cemetery

Lt. Colonel John Graves Simcoe ordered his troops to cut down a vast apple orchard which once grew here, and to rebuild the remains of an old fort which stood on this site. Nothing of the old fort remains, but the hill still holds a special significance to the Townsend family; it is one of their earliest graveyards. John Townsend is believed to be the first person buried here in 1668. His initialed headstone is greatly worn and weathered, but a bronze marker has been added, noting his immigration from England and his original ownership of this land.

16. Raynham Hall Museum

Raynham Hall Museum

Main article: Raynham Hall Museum

The building housing Raynham Hall Museum has seen several alterations, extensions and restorations since it was initially built in 1738 as a four room house with two rooms downstairs and two upstairs. In 1740 a Quaker merchant Samuel Townsend (a descendant of John Townsend, one of the original settlers of Oyster Bay) and his wife moved in. Within a few years their growing family required an extension of four rooms to be built on the back turning the building into a saltbox.

In 1851 Samuel’s grandson, Solomon Townsend II, added a three story water tower in the garden, the result of which was the first kitchen in the town with running water[citation needed]. Solomon then turned his attention to transforming the house into a Victorian villa in the 1870s.

In 1941 the building passed to the Daughters of the American Revolution and then to the Town of Oyster Bay in 1947. The Town Council decided to restore the building to the saltbox structure of the mid-eighteenth century and in 1959 the Victorian additions were removed, including bay-windows, porte cochere, skylights and the water tower.

The museum is in two parts. In the front of the house the rooms are furnished in the style of the 1770s (the period of the Revolutionary War). The rear of the house, however, is furnished in the style of the 1870s showing the style of living that Solomon had brought to the house.

The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is an active museum open to the public.

17. Seely/Wright House

Seely/Wright House

Main article: Seely/Wright House

This house, which is situated directly across the road from the Raynham Hall Museum, was built in 1830 for Dr. Ebeneezer Seely. Seely married Phebe Townsend, the youngest daughter of Samuel Townsend, when she was 45. After her death in 1841, Seely remarried and his daughter from this union married Joseph Wright, a local blacksmith.

Seely, besides his medical duties, served as Town Supervisor of Oyster Bay, School Commissioner, School Inspector and moderated many town meetings. There is a legend that Seely was acquainted with Martin van Buren and that he entertained the President in the Seely House.

Joseph Wright was a descendent of Peter Wright who is regarded as one of the founders of Oyster Bay. Peter Wright and three companions negotiated the purchase of the land from the Matinecock Indians in 1653.

The Wright family continued to occupy the Wright House (as it was then called) for many years.

18. Ludlam Building

Ludlam Building

Main article: Ludlam Building

James Ludlam opened a dry goods store in 1836 further down the road. Following a fire that started in a neighbouring cabinetmaker’s shop and destroyed Ludlam’s store, he bought a plot of land and built the two story building that is known as The Ludlam Building. The building is in the Greek Revival style. After James’ death, the store passed to his sons who later sold it to Roger Royce. Royce operated a grocery store from the site and in 1907 a fire started in the neighbouring Opera House. The local fire company responded to the fire, pumping water from a nearby stream. The Opera House, a private home and a millinery shop were destroyed, but the Ludlam Building and the Post Office were saved with only scorching. Shortly after this fire Royce sold the building to the Kursman brothers, who ran a dry goods and clothing store.

The Kursman, later joined by David Bernstein, continued with their business into the 1930s. Then, on April 12, 1932, fire struck again. This time the interior of the Ludlam Building was gutted, including all the inventory and fixtures; only the brick walls remained. Afterwards David Bernstein rebuilt the structure and operated a popular haberdashery called Dave Shop for more than thirty years. This brick building survives as one of the oldest commercial storefronts in the village, and for over a decade has been the home of Appliance World.

19. Snouders Drug Store

Snouders Drug Store

Main article: Snouders Drug Store

The
re is doubt as to when the first building was erected on this site but some evidence exists that points to the late 1600[citation needed]. Snouders Drug Store, located here since 1884, is the oldest continuously operated business in Oyster Bay. The drug store was established by Abel Miller Conklin who had been a druggist in New York City, but moved to the countryside of Oyster Bay in 1880 on the advice of his doctor, who felt the fresh air would improve his health. His first drugstore in Oyster Bay was elsewhere on South Street, but the exact location is not known. In 1884 he relocated and carried on his business with the help of his son-in-law, Andrew Snouder.

Snouder had left the clothing and shoe business to aid his ailing father-in-law. Unfortunately Conklin health did not recover and soon after the move he died, leaving Snouder to carry on, keeping the name Conklin Drug Store.

In 1887 Snouder installed the first telephone in Oyster Bay, which for several years remained the only one in town. Until Roosevelt became president even Sagamore Hill did not have a telephone and for several years Snouder’s son, Arthur, carried messages up to Roosevelt[citation needed].

The phone service became a key reason people gathered at Snouders and in May 1900 part of the store was partitioned off for the exclusive use of the telephone service. This enabled the switchboard operated by Miss Ellen Ludlam to remain open late at night until the drugstore had closed. Later that year Snouder graduated second in his class from the New York College of Pharmacy and officially changed the name to Snouders Drug Store.

The telephone also brought many members of the press to the booths of Snouders Drug Store, covering news of Theodore Roosevelt, both as Governor and President.

Following the installation of a soda fountain in 1889 young people congregated at the store as well. This soda fountain became a center of social life for several generations of young people, all the way into the 1970s[citation needed].

In the 1990s the exterior was returned to its original color, which was determined through paint chip analysis.

20. Hood A.M.E. Zion Church

Hood A.M.E. Zion Church

Main article: Hood A.M.E. Zion Church

The Hood African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, holds the distinction of being the oldest Oyster Bay congregation that is still holding services in their original church structure. The congregation was founded in 1848 by a group of African American families. And in 1856 a small wooden frame building was constructed on land donated to the congregation by Edward Weekes. In 1937, after extensive fundraising, the wooden church was covered a brick exterior.

The original name was the First African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. However, later on[when?] the congregation changed the name to the Hood A.M.E. Zion Church in honor of an early bishop, the Right Reverend James Walker Hood.

Throughout the first fifty years the congregation struggled financially and was unable to pay their pastors for more than a few months at a time. However, by 1937 they were in a position to pay their pastor as well as adding electric light and the brick faade. From 1937 to 1963 the pastor was Moses T. Smith. Today the congregation is led by Reverend Kenneth Nelson, who came to the Hood AME Zion Church in 1981.

21. Earle-Wightman House

Earle-Wightman House

Main article: Earle-Wightman House

This house, named for two 19th century Baptist ministers who resided in it, was originally built around 1720 as a small one-room dwelling. By 1897 it had been moved round the corner to its current site and extended.

In 1966 the house was donated to the Town of Oyster Bay, for the use of the Oyster Bay Historical Society. The society is headquartered at the house and operates it as a museum, with two rooms interpreted to the period 1740 and 1830.

The 1740 room is set up to illustrate how an 18th century tradesman might have lived. The 1830 room demonstrates how Rev. Earle would have entertained his guests in the parlor. The garden behind the house has been restored to the 18th century by the North Country Garden Club. It features ornamental plantings along with herbs used for medicinal purposes as well as cooking and fragrance.

The Historical Society also maintains a Research Library of books, manuscripts, photographs, maps and documents. The subjects covered by the Library include the military, maritime and religious history of Oyster Bay along with a genealogical collection.

22. St. Paul’s Methodist Church

Main article: St. Paul’s Methodist Church (Oyster Bay, New York)

The first group of Methodists in Oyster Bay formed in 1812 and used space at the Oyster Bay Academy for services when traveling ministers visited. Then in 1858 the congregation built a small church. In 1895 Joseph B. Wright, the blacksmith, bought the building from them and continued his business there for many years. The congregation then moved to St. Paul’s, which they had been working on since 1891.

In 1904 a new pipe organ was installed; half of which was paid for by the wealthy philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. By 1913 the congregation had grown substantially, and to create more room the entire building was raised using a series of jacks. A basement was excavated and several rooms including a kitchen were built.

In the 1920s a forty foot spire which used to extend above the bell tower was struck by lightning in the 1920 and had to be removed. The arnegie organ no longer exists and the interior has been given a more modern appearance.

In 1988 St. Paul Methodist Churcb merged with another congregation in East Norwich and the Bethel Pentecostal Church moved into this building. Bethel outgrew the building and moved to Westbury, and in 1999 the North Shore Community Church, part of the Presbyterian Church of America, made it their new home, along with the large parsonage next door.

The El Shaddai Pentecostal Church, another local congregation, holds their service in North Shore chapel.

The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

23. St. Dominic’s Church and Chapel

St. Dominic’s Church and Chapel

Main article: St. Dominic Roman Catholic Church (Oyster Bay, New York)

This Gothic style granite building was first dedicated on Thanksgiving Day in 1897. The original porte cochere provides a covered entrance to the chapel, and once inside one can listen to the original pipe organ. It is one of only three of its kind in the United States, an American-made Hook and Hastings Opus tracker organ, built in 1901. St. Dominic Roman Catholic Church has expanded greatly. In 1922 they established a grammar school, and in 1928, a high school. In 1968 they broke ground on a large contemporary church building, located across the street from this one. Today St. Dominic six acre campus has eleven buildings.

24. Oyster Bay Public Library

Oyster Bay Public Library

Main article: Oyster Bay – East Norwich Public Library

There were several eading rooms operated by different groups. In 1893 the People Library and Reading Room opened on East Main Street. This building was first constructed in 1901. Theodore Roosevelt laid a cornerstone in 1899 on land donated by Mrs. Harriet Swan. Andrew Carnegie supported th
e library as well. The brick building you now see to the left occupies the space of the original wood frame building. The frame house to the right was built in 1890 and later bought and combined with the original building in 1975. In 1994 glass and brick additions behind the house were added to further expand the facilities.

25. Stoddard House

Stoddard House, 2008

Stoddard House, at 107 East Main Street, was built in the 1890s for G. B. Stoddard. For a number of years from 1980 on, the house was used for offices and museum / historical archives of two organizations, the Townsend Society of America and the Underhill Society of America. The organizations, founded in 1962 and 1892, preserve genealogical material, deeds, other documents, and artifacts of the Townsend and Underhill families which settled in Oyster Bay in the mid-1600s. Henry Townsend and Captain John Underhill were two early members of these families.

26. Oyster Bay High School

Oyster Bay High School

Main article: Oyster Bay High School

Several school buildings preceded this one. This Art Deco building replaced the first high school building completed in 1901 on Anstice Street. The new school had modern features, including classroom loudspeakers, an auditorium with balcony and projection booth, a central vacuuming system, and one of the most modern gymnasiums in Nassau County. After 70 years the gym had become outdated. It was replaced in 2000 with a new state-of-the-art gymnasium, dedicated to Dr. Howard Imhof. The 2000 additions also included a new library-media center.

27. Typhoid Mary in Oyster Bay

Main article: Mary Mallon

Mary Mallon worked as a cook in various part of the New York area between 1900 and 1907. One of her positions was with a wealthy New York banker, Charles Henry Warren and his family. When the Warrens rented the hone of Mr. and Mrs. George Townsend in Oyster Bay for the summer of 1906, Mallon came along. From August 27 to September 3, six of the eleven people in the house came down with typhoid fever. Typhoid fever in Oyster Bay at that time was “unusual,” according to three doctors who practiced medicine there.

The Townsends were worried they would be unable to rent their house and they hired George Soper in the winter of 1906 to investigate. Soper in his investigation published June 15, 1907, in the Journal of the American Medical Association, said he believed soft clams might be the source of the outbreak. He then wrote:

“It was found that the family changed cooks on August 4. This was about three weeks before the typhoid epidemic broke out… She remained in the family only a short time, leaving about three weeks after the outbreak occurred. The cook was described as an Irish woman about 40 years of age, tall, heavy, single. She seemed to be in perfect health.”

Soper would later apprehend Mary Mallon in New York, and she was placed in isolation on North Brother Island, not once but twice.

28. Wilson House

Wilson House, in 2008

Main article: Wilson House (Oyster Bay, New York)

This is one of the oldest houses in Oyster Bay still standing on its original site. The saltbox style house dates back to the 1750. An example of salt box architecture. This refers to south-facing houses with sloping rear sections ending at a height of three or four feet. Two legends persist about famous visitors to the house. Marquis de Talleyrand is reputed to have spent a night in the 1790s while fleeing the eign of Terror in France. President George Washington is reputed to have stopped her and spoke to children from the porch on April 24, 1790. These legends bring added interest to an already special old home, one of the last of its kind.

29. First Presbyterian Church of Oyster Bay

First Presbyterian Church of Oyster Bay

Main article: First Presbyterian Church of Oyster Bay

The first Presbyterian ministry began in Oyster Bay in 1842. After having buildings at a variety of locations they finally located here. In 1872, led by Pastor Benjamin L. Swan, work began on this beautiful church on the hill. The architect was J. Cleveland Cady, who was just beginning his career and would go on to design the original Metropolitan Opera House, the American Museum of History, and other noted buildings. This church was his first though, and the only he would ever design in the unique Carpenter Gothic style. Mr. and Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt, Sr., attended services here, and Mr. Roosevelt funeral was held here in 1878.

30. Christ Church of Oyster Bay

Christ Church of Oyster Bay

Main article: Christ Church of Oyster Bay

Christ Church founded in 1705 is an historic Episcopal parish church in Oyster Bay, New York. Over the years several church buildings have occupied this site, including one that served as soldier’s barracks during the Revolutionary War. In the 1870s a Carpenter Gothic style building was erected. In 1925 this was greatly enlarged and encased in stone. Those additions also included striking stained glass windows. President Theodore Roosevelt attended church here, and his wife and children were active members. The church is notable for holding Roosevelt funeral service in 1919.

Other

The walk shares similarities with other walks, including Boston’s Freedom Trail and the Baltimore Heritage Walk.

See also

Theodore Roosevelt in Oyster Bay

List of Town of Oyster Bay Landmarks

New York State Historic Markers, Nassau County, Town of Oyster Bay

National Register of Historic Places listings in Nassau County, New York

References

^ a b “Oyster Bay Hamlet is the First to Launch a Heart-History Walk”. American Heart Association Start! Walking Path is First for Long Island. Oyster Bay Enterprise Pilot. 2009-02-06. http://www.antonnews.com/oysterbayenterprisepilot/2009/02/06/news/walk.html. 

^ Multiple published sources by John Hammond are available, notably including Oyster Bay Remembered (2002), When the sirens sound: the history of the Atlantic Steamer Fire Company and the fire service in Oyster Bay (1996), and Historic Cemeteries of Oyster Bay (2007).

^ “For Day Trips, Places Where History Happened”. The New York Times. 2007-09-30. http://travel.nytimes.com/2007/09/30/nyregion/nyregionspecial2/30rCOVER.html. 

^ “News”. Talk of the Town Walking Tour. Oyster Bay Enterprise Pilot. 2004-08-03. http://www.antonnews.com/oysterbayenterprisepilot/2004/08/13/news/. 

^ “Introduction”. Oyster Bay History Walk. Oyster Bay Main Street Association. 2009-04-08. http://www.oysterbaymainstreet.org/historywalk01.htm. 

^ “Historic Oyster Bay Map”. Oyster Bay Main Street Association. 2009-04-24. http://www.oysterbaymainstreet.org/OB_History_Map_v200901a.pdf. 

^ Digital duplicate provided by author from original available at the Oyster Bay Historical Society, 20 Summit Street, Oyster Bay, New York.

^ Oyster Bay Remembered by John E. Hammond (Maple Hill Press, 2002)

^ “Legend of Capt. Kidd”. Legend of Capt. Kidd. Newsday. 2009-04-12. http://www.newsday.com/community/guide/lihistory/ny-hs324,0,7442594.story. 

^ Richard Zacks, The Pirate Hunter: The True St
ory of Captain Kidd (Hyperion, 2003)

^ “Wightman Memorial Baptist Church”. Oyster Bay History Walk, Track 12. Oyster Bay Main Street Association. 2009-04-08. http://www.oysterbaymainstreet.org/historywalk12.htm. 

^ Interview with John E. Hammond, Oyster Bay Town Historian, October 31, 2008.

^ “Preserving the Octagon Hotel, Summary Report of Findings & Recommendations”. Oyster Bay Main Street Association. 2008-11-09. http://www.oysterbaymainstreet.org/Octagon_Hotel_FINAL.pdf. 

^ Sanborn Fire Insurance Map, Oyster Bay, Sheet 4 (Nov. 1897)

^ “Museum”. Information and Oysters. Oyster Bay Historical Society. 2009-04-12. http://www.oysterbayhistory.org/Obhsmuse.htm. 

^ Oyster Bay Sanborn Fire Insurance Map, Sheet 4, Nov 1897

^ “Oyster Bay’s New Church, Methodist Congregegation Building Handsome Home,” The New York Times, October 7, 1894

^ “Church Organists in a Row,” The New York Times, July 13, 1907

^ “History”. North Shore Community Church. North Shore Community Church. 2009-04-17. http://www.forministry.com/USNYPRCIANSCCN/AboutUs/. 

^ “Historical Snapshots”. Dinner with Typhoid Mary. Newsday. 2009-04-12. http://www.newsday.com/community/guide/lihistory/ny-history-hs702a,0,6698943.story. 

^ “Introduction”. Oyster Bay History Walk. Oyster Bay Main Street Association. 2009-04-08. http://www.oysterbaymainstreet.org/historywalk01.htm. 

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ART

Photographic History

Blumenthal Performing Arts
by Sifu Renka

Zheng-Yi Wang filming “sandstorms hit Beijing” 
The reason why the birth of photography, that is, for the record. It is displayed after the birth of the great vitality, but also precisely because of its record. This is the other technology or art can not match or replace. Thus, broadly speaking, photography is the record. 
Artistic photography 
With the development of photography, people continue to increase in the photography art elements, began to produce art photography. It is the difference between photography and record the number and level of art, no absolute limits. For example: we go taking pictures for identity cards or Liugejinian, general studio photographs, data or record up to a bit value.However, Mr. Zheng Jingkang to shoot portraits, Mr. Qi, 50 years later, still the world’s 20 best works of one of the portraits. The difference completely 
White agate stone pictograph of the original “fat feet Niu Yang Yuhuan,” Zheng-Yi Wang Photo 
Lies in the level of artistic quality. 
Painting Photography 
Painting pictures of photography for its aesthetic design language and a beautiful portrait photography content has been an important means of expression. Since the invention of photography has, say, Painting Photography has been through it, and the history of photography from several milestone. After the second half of the nineteenth century, the British photographer Lei Landa had been predicted to take out a “new era of photography,” the two works —–” way of life “in photography was also ignored, its advised of painting oil painting style theme and composition, by Queen Victoria’s high rating. Can be said that Lei Landa on promoting the photographic arts have been recognized as a contributed. Since then, the pictorial art of photography has gradually become an important photographic genre. 
Holography 
Holography is a kind of records are photo objects reflected wave amplitude and phase, and all other information on the new photography. Photography is a record of ordinary objects 
Agate carving colorful plants “sub Dragon” 
Plane intensity distribution, it can not record objects in the reflected light of the phase information, and thus lost the three-dimensional. Holography using laser as light source and light source into two beams of light emitted, a bunch of direct fired sensitive film, and the other a bunch of photo objects of reflection by being fired after the sensitive film. Two beams of light sensitive film, superposed interference, photographic film sensitive points on the extent of not only with the intensity of the light beam with the two different phase relations. Therefore, holography not only records the object of reflection intensity, phase information is also recorded.Directly to the human eye to see this sensitive film, only to see the same interference fringes as fingerprints, but if it is irradiated with a laser to the human eye can see through the original film was shot identical three-dimensional objects, like . A holographic image Even if just one small part, can still reproduce all the features. Holography can be used in industrial non-destructive testing, ultrasonic holography, holographic microscopy, holographic memory, holographic film and television, and many other aspects. 
1. Painting photography doctrine 
Painting doctrine early 20th century photography is popular in the field of photography an art school, it produces in the mid-nineteenth century England. 
The school photographer in the creative pursuit of painting effects, or “poetic” in the state. It has gone through the following three stages: imitation painting stage; advocate song Ya stage; Painting stage. 
Painting doctrine photographer says, “should result in photography and photography of Ti Cian Raphael.” 
Painting doctrine has undergone a long development of photography during the first painting photography doctrine Greek cuisine is a British painter Road (1802-1870), who specializes in portrait photography, works well-structured, elegant. From 1851 to 1853, is the growth period of painting photography doctrine. In 1869, the British photographer, HP Robinson (1830-1901) published a photograph of the picturesque effect of the book, he proposed: “Photographers must have a rich emotional and in-depth understanding of art, square enough to become a good photographer. No doubt , photography continued improvement and continuous innovation which revealed a higher goal, enough to make photography more freely; but improved technology is not equivalent to artistic progress. because the photo itself is exquisite in any case complete, it is only a lead to a higher goal. “lays a theoretical foundation for the school. 
1857, OG Leyland (1813-1875) created a spell from the 30 films which formed up, with Renaissance-style works: Two ways of life, marking the painting art photography mature doctrine. 
Works of this period, most of its rich religious theme, with a certain degree of regulatory metaphorical. Shooting, lay the draft notice, and then use models, props, to organize scenes and processed through the darkroom. Pursuit of photo images of the paintings. 
Subsequently, the painting has expanded the content of Marxist photography, but still uphold the classical style, shape and composition remain the law of academic, which make the savings, Journal of the table, elegant. 

Photo by photographer Zheng Jingkang “Qi” 
When the school to the Painting stage of development, the pursuit of works of emotion, mood and form of the United States, remains its characteristics. 
Since painting artistic accomplishments of Marxism photographer stressed: “If you want to make the photo standing in art, photography must first cultivate the ability and aesthetic education from the real art training.” Therefore, its historical contribution was to photograph from the early mechanical depict objects lead to the field of plastic arts, to promote the development of the art of photography. 
As the doctrine of creation drawing from real life mostly, coupled with the increasing improvement of photographic equipment, interesting people as early as the continuous development of the United States for “naturalism” by the impact. Despite this, in today’s photographic art galleries, there are still seats it. 
The school’s principal photographer, and works include: Pleasant on (? -1 896) of the Baron of the feast, Robinson Crusoe, pagoda scene; Robinlynn of the time when the day’s work finished, the fall, the two little girls, dying , holding a bottle of poison Juliet, dawn and sunset; Leyland glow of the first baptism by St. John, 伊菲吉尼亚, Dieter and 荷罗佛尼斯 excellent; Ms. Jin Malun (1815-1897) Tom 姆士卡莱尔and Trinidad (1820-1910) of the dying of the clamor and Russia and so on. 
2. Impressionist photography 
In 1899, the British organized a French impressionist painting of the first exhibition. Painting Faction photographers under the influence of Robinson in his proposed “soft tone sharp photography photography more beautiful than the” aesthetic standards, promote a “soft tone” photography. Impressionist painting of the school is in the field of photographic art to reflect. 
Start, they use soft focus lens for filming, textured finishing, the pursuit of a vague hazy effects of artistic expression. With the “wash silver bromide phase” and in the paint mixed with dichromate in the emergence of plastic washing photo paper method, Impressionist works from the imaging camera to the darkroom to control the development process. Them “to make work seem like photographs,” and that “if there is no painting, there is no real photography.” 
Under the guidance of this theory, impressionist photographers also use brush, pencil, rubber processing in the photo on the screen, deliberately changed its original brightness change, the pursuit of “painting” effect, such as Lakeluoya created in 1900 The “sweep the park” and, as is a painting on canvas charcoal. Impressionist photographers make
their own photographic art works completely lost its own characteristics, so some people took it as “imitation Painting.”Doctrine photography can say it is a branch of painting. 
This genre of art is characterized by gloomy tone, film grain rough, full of decorative, but lack the sense of space. The well-known photographer with Duma Xi (? -1937), Puyo (1857-1933), Qiu Yan (1866-1944), Vacek (1848-1903), Hoffmeister Brothers (1868-1943; 1871-1937), Duerkefu (1848-1918), Aifuerte (1874-1948), Mizun time (1870-1943), Xin swallow (1863-1908), Church Lane (1861-1947), etc. . 
3. Realistic photography 
Realistic photography is a long history of photographic genre, stretches so far, still photography of the basic and primary schools. It is the creation methods of realism in the field of photographic art to reflect. 
The genre of photographic artists in the creation abide by the photography of the documentary feature, in their view, photography should have “equal and nature itself, with” the faithful of the screen in every detail, and only with the “math-like precision,” work to play his kind of art forms do not have the appeal and persuasive. A · Stiglitz said: “Only of the faithful, is our mission.” On the other hand, they were indifferent to anti-object as a mirror, purely objectively reflect the object, claiming that creation should have a choice, on the reflect the things artists should have their own aesthetic judgments. Well-known realist photographer Lewis said Hein on this saying: “I want to expose things that should be added to correct; the same time, to reflect the things that should be commended.” See that they are advocating art should “reflect the life” view. They dare to face reality, the subject, mostly taken in the social life. The simple, artistic style, but with a strong witness to the power of and tips. 
The earliest realistic photographic hobby when pushed British photographer 菲利普德拉 Mott in 1853 shooting a documentary that collodion. Later, it is Luosi Fen ton of field photography, and the late sixties, William Jackson, Yellowstone wonders. After 1870, realistic photography matures, start turning the lens of social, turning life. If the photographer was shot 巴纳多博士 on the plight of street children, and shocked people. 
As the loving shots of the enormous and extraordinary understanding of the role of moving gradually in the field of information to take their position. Ya-nineties American photographer on the New York slums Brisbane Valley life that works, that is, ground-breaking work in this area. 

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Subsequently, realistic photography talents, works both for its strong and deep nature of reality is known in the history of photography. Such as the UK Borland’s “pick up those coal”; U.S. R · Capa’s “pass it the first French woman to be shaved through the streets”; France Weisz of “girl” and so many others. 
4. Naturalistic photography 
In 1899, photographer Bidehengli Emerson in view of the weakness of painting in Writing, published an article entitled “naturalistic photography,” the paper, criticized the doctrine photography is fragmented painting photography, promotion photography back to nature to find inspiration. He believed that nature is the art of the start and end, only the closest to nature, resembles a natural art, is the highest art. He said no more precise an art than photography and detailed, faithfully reflects the natural, “from the emotionally and psychologically speaking, the effect of photography hobby is that photographic materials are recorded, without modification of the camera scene.” The send another master A · L · Patrick Chiu said more clearly: “Art should be left to artists to do, on our photography, and have nothing to rely on the art, should be engaged in the creative independence.” 
Thus, this art advocate, is painting a reactionary doctrine, which helped to turn the photo from the shackles of academic freed on full role in promoting photography has its own characteristics. 
Inspiration for this genre, mostly of natural scenery and social life. 
As naturalistic photography in describing the reality of the surface to meet the realities and details of the “absolute” truth, while ignoring the real nature of mining and refining on the surface of objects, words, pay no attention to artistic creation and artistic image of the typical typification, Thus, it essentially is a vulgarization of realism. Sometimes lead to a distortion of reality. 
This school has well-known photographer Apartment Office (1856-1930), Weier Qin Xun (1857-1921), Geer (? -1 906), scratch Jesus (1856 -?), Sutcliffe (1859-1940 ) and so on. 
5. Purists photography 
Purists are ripe in the early twentieth century photography a photography school of art. Its pioneering by the American photographer Stiglitz (1864-1946). They argued that photography should play their own characteristics and performance photography, painting of it from freed, with pure photography to pursue photography has a special aesthetic effect – a high degree of clarity, rich shadow tone levels, subtle lighting changes, pure tone black and white film, fine texture performance, precise image depicts. In short, the school photographer deliberately pursue the so-called “photographic quality”: precise, direct, subtle and natural way to behave to the subject of light, color, line, shape, pattern, quality aspects, and not with any other plastic arts medium. 
Coban 1913 exhibition sent overlooking New York’s masterpiece is pure camp. New York photographer, a square from above, though without any processing, modification, but the new composition, unique style and refreshing, another example, Sandberg E Stein, K Cheng, with repeated exposure is approach, the independent works of space, time constraints, in a delicate screen depicts the poet emotional conversion, a combination of fine tone and composition changes, most rhythm. 
From a certain point of view, simply send some of the ideas and creativity is the formalism and naturalism of the “bastard”, then the derivative into a “New Objectivity.” But the genre to some extent people have been promoted photography features and performance skills of exploration and research. 
The genre is well-known photographer Strand (1890 -?) And F64 group photographer photographic organizations, such as Adams, Cunningham and other. 
Purists later works are the lines, patterns and distorted image of the abstract aspects of development, the influential photographer is Yabo, Shiding Na, history, culture and Evans off so special. 
6. New Objectivity photography 
New Objectivity photography, also known as “disposable photography” and “new realism photography.” The twenties of this century the emergence of a photography school of art. 
The schools of arts features to look for things in common, “the United States.” With a close-up, close-up and other techniques to bring to the subject from the whole “separation” came out, obviously reflected by the object of a detailed, precise and accurately describe its surface structure to achieve the matter are both trademarks eyes and ears of the visual effects. It does not take into account the nature of art is to suggest the nature of the object, which in his aesthetic theories are naturalistic areas. For example, the photographer Patrick Church in the 1923 shooting of an engine shaft is to use close-up way back, the performance of the rotary engine running state, because the screen to give away the other details so the audience a strong visual impression. 
New Objectivism theory pioneered by Strand, his artistic features of Objectivism provides as follows: “New Objectivity but nature photography, and is also the product and the limits of photography.” He believes that photography ” strong performance of life, but also observe the right eye of things. For this reason, not based on a perfunctory process and method of operation, but must use pure photography 才行. “New Objectivity photography pioneer in the creation of the Arab-Israeli Jason and Steichen. The actual founder of the Church referred to above par. 
Patrick Chiu against photography depends on the painting, he stressed the need to rely on photography art photography own characteristics, that the aesthetic value of photography features hidden in its own, only give full play to its own characteristics of photography to create the United States, he said: “The painting should be lightly by the artist to paint, and only according to the inherent characteristics, can be created independent of photography, nothing is borrowed from painting. ” 
New Objectivity photographers of merit is to promote people’s own characteristics of photography and exploration of the aesthetic of photography from the virtual world in real life to pull back. However, too much emphasis on the detailed physical description of the surface structure, for later abstract photography provided a germination of the soil. 
Before and after 1925, due to a large-caliber small camera, the performance of New Objectivity new development areas, resulting in a lot of portrait work and reflect the social life and natural beauty of the works. 
New Objectivity photographers are famous Sand (1876-1964), Le Siji (1871-1956), black GE (1893-1955), Xier Xia (1881-1948) Hugh Limanhuopei (1878 -?), Ai Fute (1874-1948), Weiss swallow Adams (? -1 902) and so on. 
7. Surrealistic photography 
Surrealist photography for the Dada period of decline seen in the field of photography as a genre, the rise in the thirties of last century. 
The school has a more stringent program of art and art theory. They believe that a realistic way to create real-world performance of classical artists have already completed the task of the modern artist’s mission is to tap new, not yet explored that part of the human “spirit world.”Thus, the human subconscious activities, occasionally inspired, psychological metamorphosis and became surreal fantasy photography artists made a special object. 
Surrealist photography of the Dada photographer is also the same as using scissors, paste, darkroom techniques as their primary means of modeling, the scene will be piling up the screen works, put together, restructuring, performance and detail the specific any exaggeration, distortion, omission and symbolic practices combine to create a real and imagined, between the concrete and abstract, surreal “art realm.” Therefore, the effect is bizarre, absurd and mysterious. 
The school’s founder is a British photographer, silk cloth Dayton and the United States to stay Quayle (1880-1945). Completed for
the British stage for the real photographer Mark Bin (1905 -?), In his own creation, the “super-reality” of virtual and real reality blend together to create an illusion it is really only the realm. For example, he created in 1946, “Mark Bin’s self-portrait” is a typical ultra-realistic work, it is the use of four exposure shot out of the way – one front, two side and one eye . 
The school has engaged in a famous photographer, surrealist painter Pal Khan photo Collection; deformation of the body photographer Brent; portrait and publicity photography Carson, and Blumenthal, Lorraine, Haersiman, according to Lai, et al. 
8. Abstract photography 
Abstract photography after World War I there was a photography school of art. 
Denial of the school’s photographer can look at the art of plastic art is to reflect the image of life, performance artists of the basic characteristics of aesthetic experience, claiming that photography should be “liberated from the photography inside.” 
Initially, with no end magnify omitted to “Pi Sheti” The detail and rich texture fine tone, produced only the performance of the shape of the “light drawing.” Was developed to or use of light, or clip highlights, or half-way exposure, or shake the camera when shooting the image in the film to Pi Sheti the knot as vague, or multiple exposure to the heavy shadow, until images of the surface structure changes, changes the picture in the original object shape and spatial structure, trying to use the so-called form of fine tone (color) and the material of the “absolute abstract language”, so that was the object into a photo can tell why the objects of the lines, spots and shapes combination. To the performance of the bibles of the so-called artists to send the most real human beings, the most essential power of the subconscious world. In this work, photo objects are only created by the artist borrowed the performance of their own whim imagination and personality, “melody” of the notes. 
Beginning of abstract photography are for the Taier Bo (1800-1877). Initially, the screen still works to maintain a certain degree of identifiable sex. To the 1917 photography Coban (1882 -?) And transparent glass with a wood shot, “Bordeaux Illustrated” had absolutely no identification of the. 1922, abstract painter 莫荷利纳基 Hungary (1895 -?) In man Ray (1890 -?) And others to build on them, and theoretically be established. Subsequently, the abstract painter Kandinsky, Keller introduced into the microscopic photography and X-ray photography, which greatly expanded the scope of the performance of abstract photography has enriched the language of photography, set up their own art system, and popular in Europe and the United States and other countries. 
The school’s representative, unless already mentioned, there are Shige Te, Fenninger, On real rand, Folai Tai, Wen Gap Baptist, Georgia met with Pakistan, leaving Square, etc. Compiled and cloth. 
9. Kansas’s school photo 
Worthy of the camp after World War I the rise of photography, painting doctrine against a major photography photography school. 
The school photographer for respect of their properties photography, emphasizing the real, natural, advocates shooting without mercy, non-interference in the object, to promote the natural state of crawling to the subject of the instant modality. French famous “worthy of” distributing photographer Hengli Ka Di Erbuliesong said: “For me, photography is a moment in a timely manner to the significance of an event and be able to accurately express this event accurate record of organizational form. “schools of art which features the objective, real, natural, friendly, casual, not something carved, vivid and full of life atmosphere. 
“Worthy of the” camp of the photographer, the tendency of his aesthetic and creative thinking in terms of, yes the situation more complicated for, Sui Ran Du uphold their state’s performance in the world of human nature, majority have engaged in Yu news photography work, but some of Wei natural advocates, some of those for the realism. 
Birth of the school’s work is photography in 1893 Alfred Stiglitz’s “Fifth Avenue of New York winter,” while those who actually completed is the German photographer Ailikesha Paramount Dr. . He used a small camera in a German-French Prime Minister at the end of the meeting taken at night, “political conference in Rome”, because of its vivid, true, simple, natural, and became the school a place in photographic history of the classics. 
Aesthetics in photography, they think of “the basic characteristics of photography-based pictures, the house of the painter or etching can not imitate, it has its own integral I, has its own unique expression, and even with other media not demonstrated the characteristics of. “Secondly, the performance of objective things, they stressed the importance and originality, said: “(photographers use) their own point of view in the world, do not look at the world through the eyes of others, which is the distinction between mediocre or brilliant photos , the standard value or no value. ” 
The famous photographer to send the United States according to the Thomas Road 韦尔麦阿沃; British 茜莉特摩戴尔; France 维克托哈夫 door; and 路易斯达尔 Wolf, Bidesita Kebierbu Lu Weiqi and so on. 
10. “Dada” Photo 
“Dada” is seen in Europe during World War I an art thought of. “Dada”, a French children’s language, “pony” or “hobby horse” are not consistent vocabulary. Dada artists for denial in the creation of rational and traditional culture, art and aesthetics declared missed in favor of “abandoned painting and all the aesthetic requirements”, advocating nothing, so the creative almost playful, so people to the school of art called “Dada faction. ” 
In this art, under the influence of the field of photography has also had a “Dada.” Creation of a famous photographer Haersiman had a Mona Lisa, her pair of plump hand into the red with rage here is not only sudden, hairs clustered, but also filled with money. Be described as preposterous, neither fish nor fowl. 
Dada artists, creative photography, mostly editing process using darkroom techniques to create a fantasy scene to express their own ideas. For example, the Leda and the Swan LM Naki, to a beautiful Greek myths, dealing with the grotesque into something obscure, elusive combination of images and lines. In the screen, visual images no longer exist in their own meaning, but only the component elements of certain ideas. Series also means to use scissors to flock to Niagara Falls, New York, created a shortage Kang Min Liao doomsday scene. 
As the Dada art photography that people normally do not meet the aesthetic interest and aesthetic requirements, since 1924 there would gradually be more specific, comprehensive arts program tofu and Surrealist art school impact. But its impact may still occur after the glimpse of modern photography. 
Dada famous photographer has 菲利普哈尔 Tasman, Morgan, 拉茨罗摩荷 Lina Ji and Lisiteji so.
11. Subjectivism photography 
Photography is a subjective formed after the Second World War more than abstract photography “abstract” of the photographic art school, so they called the “post-war faction.” 
It is the existence of Marxist Philosophy in the field of photographic art to reflect. Its founder is the German photographer 奥特斯坦内特. He believes that “photography is already a wide field of play to their capabilities, but also highly subjective and dynamic role. But has become a kind of mechanical realism.” Put forward a “subjective photography art ideas. Urged that the ultimate photography tips photography itself should be some hazy ideas and performance not explained the inner state and the subconscious activities.” Subjective photography is the personification of personalized photo . This is the school’s arts program. Subjective photographic artists to create extreme stress their personality, contempt for all rules have been artistic and aesthetic standards. The theorists
of the public school, “said photography is not just a subjective test of image art, but a free unlimited creative arts.” “We can use technical means to create any picture.” 
Evolution of the Western world body photography art history, in Greece and the European Renaissance there have been a brilliant period of body art, was born the art of experiencing the reproduction of the initial shocking reality of artistic expression, the full exploration spirit and creativity of the photographer began to break through into the human body photography. 1857, Swedish photographer and subsequently remain in the United Kingdom Lei Dalan, shot a photographic history regarded as a classic in the making of the “two roads of life”, this piece of plot-rich, voluminous scenes images, using a large number of human works on the theme concept of good and punish the bad, the elderly white coming from the center, both sides of the two sets of figures reflect two different moral values, life vision and journey of life. On the left that diligent, friendly, progressive, right, said greed, pleasure and vice. Share more than 30 films which made editing collage to enlarge. It would have been a very imaginative and positive artistic creation, has also been appreciated at the time of Queen Victoria. Held in Manchester, important works of plastic arts exhibition for the emerging art of photography has won a high reputation. But it has also been a few attacks, it spent so many naked women, attitude rough Yin Mei, flow in the sex and so on. Can be seen, ancient and modern, body art no matter how positive or ideological significance of the art smart deal, will be subject to criticism and attack some people, I am afraid this has become a regular respond. 
Western human photography trend is very clear. In the development of the traditional body of conventional photography, but also expressed a strong popular perception, the language of modern photography, creating a variety of genres, styles of work, resulting in a deformity, cutting, restructuring, mysterious, absurd, ugly mood. Jerry Yu Tasman as a symbol meaning of human photography, Luojiemaiding’s “arbitrary body,” Todd Park nest shape of the body of the original huge photography, 罗伯特亨内斯 Chin and Kai tezu * Ekehama reorganization of the human body such as the cutting photography, 李思丽克罗娜 Sri Lanka fantastic meaning of human photography and Nimda, Hong Ruo Road Nimiqieer means such a sexy human photography. 
China Eastern culture and the human body photography 
In summary, the same as the background of oriental culture, Japan and other countries the human body photography, the art also exists in two distinct tendencies – one is so strong and the oriental culture, the culture, creating a distinctive feature of the human body photographyOne is the cynical and Western culture, European culture, creating strong prominent human personality photography. Both have their own authors and readers, audience can go hand in hand, to develop their own. 
Its characteristics are: 
A picture of “concrete” and “abstract” no matter what form of two forms of self-expression of ideas is the ultimate goal. Screen all the photographers to express themselves only a “carrier” only. 
2 features full use of the lens perspective, the Pi Sheti from reality “stripped” out, “moved” to the screen up, – the use of certain optical properties of the lens, the objective to transform objects, making ideas “materialized body”, thus creating a screen to form their own “world.” This world is often absurd, mysterious, or is 100 not comprehend the. 
3 means the use of clear and strong close-up to strengthen and highlight the performance of a detailed form of objects. 
4 used darkroom techniques to enrich the picture in its original shadow tone simplification, the natural, ordinary relationship into a strong visual relationship. 
5 Using the exposure means (such as multiple exposure, continuous flash), so that Pi Sheti separated from the concept of time, and dynamically position the concept of time and space to be swapped. 
In addition to its well-known photographer Ott, Sitanneite, there are Jieshimoer, Xiaofanoukan,

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